Sexual intercourseThe virus can be transmitted vaginally or anal in the absence of a condom. There is also a risk associated with oral sex, but the chances of contagion are much lower.
HIV can also be contracted by using sex toys previously used by sick people.The best way to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases is the use of condoms in intercourse with penetration and an interdental dam (dental dam) in oral sex.
Condoms are the most effective form of protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. It can and should be used in sexanal,vaginal,oral (in intercourse practiced to a woman, dental-dam can be used).
HIV can also be transmitted before ejaculation, through pre-orgasmic and vaginal secretions, and from the anus. It is therefore very important that the condom is put on before any contact between the penis, vagina, mouth or anus.
Lubricants are often used to increase sexual pleasure and safety, because they help moisten the vagina or anus during intercourse; they can increase safety by reducing the risk of vaginal or anal lacerations due to dryness or friction, and can also prevent condoms from breaking.
With condoms, only aqueous, non-oily lubricants (such as petroleum jelly and baby oil) should be used, the latter weakening the material the condom is made of (latex) and can cause it to break.
Sex education is therefore extremely important to help prevent HIV transmission, as well as other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, syphilis, and genital warts.
Many STDs cause irritation, sores, or ulcers of the skin and mucous membranes through which the virus is transmitted, if you have an STD, such as genital herpes for example, it has been shown to increase a person’s risk of contracting HIV. if he or she has unprotected sex with someone who is HIV positive.Sharing of injection devices
If users of injectable drugs, do not reuse needles, syringes, spoons, swabs or other injection devices, as they could expose you to HIV and other blood-borne viruses, such as hepatitis C.
Many public facilities and pharmacies offer needle replacement programs, where you can get new needles in exchange for used ones.In heroin addicts, consider methadone programs. Methadone can be taken in the form of liquid, thus reducing the risk of contracting HIV.
The treating physician or facilities dedicated to addiction treatment (such as SERTs) will be able to provide the necessary information on needle replacement and methadone programs.
For tattoos or piercings, it is imperative that clean and sterile needles are used.
HIV screening in pregnancyThe HIV test is offered to all pregnant women as part of the prenatal screening routine.
If left untreated, the infection can be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy, during childbirth and subsequently with breastfeeding.To learn more about pregnancy and HIV click here.